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a victory with an ad hoc team of dedicated workers. People had come forward to contribute all kinds of talents. Some were party members; some were not.

While hands and feet were needed to reach the voters, brains were also needed to formulate winning ideas. I had grabbed whatever advice was offered in the improvised race to my first test at the polls. Now there was time to plan ahead towards the next election.

I had two administrative models to study--the official campaign advice which was issued by ALP Head Office; and a manual from Frank Walker, based on his experience in winning and holding Georges River.

The Head Office model was a rationale for the formal party structure: from the local branches, through state (or federal) electorate councils, to the Head Office officials at the apex. Each of the "party units" had certain responsibilities which were governed by the party rules. Their form was suited to controlling membership and to administering the internal affairs of the party. For elections, the themes and tactics devised by Head Office and their advertising agency emphasised a uniform statewide campaign.

In contrast, the Walker manual dealt with the particular problem of holding a marginal seat. He had found it necessary to go outside the party structure for support, and to develop strategies for local

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