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[Page 222]

[de]rive from having "both its flanks protected, by the Fleet which could thus bring a cross-fire to bear and rake the enemy's positions. Whether this decision was right or wrong, I am not prepared to argue. One thing is certain that the expectations formed of the Fleet's guns dismally failed to be realised and once more we have missed our objective.

The Effect Of The Ships. Guns.
Nothing has been more disappointing that the Effect of these high- velocity, low-trajectory shells, both twelve and six inch# on the enemy's trenches and field works. The Turks have proved themselves to be past-masters in digging themselves in. Time and time again our troops have been held up in their attacks by suddenly finding themselves up against deep trenches, the existence of which had not previously been suspected, hidden as they are amidst the shrub and bracken. It is often impossible to locate them by aeroplane reconnaissance. For the enemy will cart away all the earth which is usually thrown up in the form of a parapet so as to leave merely a deep, narrow, drain flush with the ground and below the level of the thick shrub. Unless the position of a trench is accurately known, it is impossible to do it any material damage by shell fire and even if these drains are located, direct shell fire from the

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