James Cook - A Journal of the proceedings of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour on a voyage round the world, by Lieutenant James Cook, Commander, commencing the 25th of May 1768 - 23 Oct. 1770 - Page 53
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Remarkable Occurrences & I.[Incidents] from Rio de Janeiro. Towards Terra del Fuego.
-First part Strong Gales & cloudy which Obliged us to get down Top Gall.t. Yards at 8
PM it blew a Storm of Wind with Rain which brought us under our Mainsail with her Head to the Westward, sounded 50 fa.om. fine brown sand at Midnight had 40 fa .om. the same bottom. at 4 AM had 46 fa.om . Coral Rock the wea.r. being more Mod.te. made Sail under the Courses & at 9 set the Top.ls. with 2 Rfs in
Firstp.t. mod.te. breezes & Cloudy remainder fresh breezes & Clear
PM Loosed all the Reefs out & got Topgall.t. Yards a Cross Variation per Azm.th. 16º.12 'per Amplitude 16.32. Mean of the Two 16.22E.t. between 9 & 10 AM took 7 Sets of Observ.on. between the Sun & Moon to find the Long.de. of the Ship each set Consists of three Observ.on. the Mean of the whole gave 59.18.34W.t. of Greenwich the result of each set was as follows Firs.t.p.rt. 1. Set 59º.8' Second 59.21 Third 59.34.Fourth 59.17 Fifth 59º.11'.45". Sixth 57.19.30 & the Seventh 59.20.45 the greatest difference between any two / Var'n' of the six 1& 3d is but 26' & the mean of these 2 differs from the mean of the whole only 2'.26" this shows to what degree of accuracy these observ.on. can be made even by Different Persons for 4 of these were made & computed by Mr Green & the rest by my Self. The Long.de. given by the Ship reckoning from the last Observ.on 5 Days ago differs only 8 Miles from the Observation which Shows that we have not been in any Currents, Soundings from 40 to 47
Little wind & Sometimes Calm the firstp.t. Clear wea.er. remainder foggy & Hazey soundings from 44 & to 49 fa.om. Grey sandy Bottom. Caught both this Morning & last Night a great Number of insects, some were upon the Wing, but the greatest part were upon the Water, & many of these alive & of such sorts as cannot Fly far. & yet at this Time we could not be less then 30 Leagues from Land-
Cloudy wea.er. with some Lightning & a few showers of rain Var.on. 18'96E.t. Sounding From 46 to 50 fa.om. fine Dark sand-
First & Latterp.t. parts fresh breezes & Clear wea.er. in the Middle light Airs & calm at Noon Long.de.in per 4 Sets of Observ.on. between the sun & moon 61º.8'.28" W.t. the Difference between the least & Greatest of these sets was 8' & the mean of 2 differs from the Mean of the whole but 32" the Long.de. by account carried on from the last Observ.on. exactly agree with these Observ.ns. Saw a Great number of small Whales about the Ship
The firstp.t. of this day a Genteel gale & Clear wea.er. Middle Squally with Lightning & rain & some showers of Larger Hail Stones, towards Noon a Steady fresh breeze & Clear wea.er. at Noon Long.de. as by 3 Sets of Observations between the Sun & Moon 61.7.45 which is 43" to the Eastward of yesterdays Observ.ns. the Ship by the Log has made 4' East.
Fresh G.es. & clearer wea.er. under Single R'f Topsails
PM Saw some Whales & Porposes. & small red Crawfish some of which we Caught, At Noon saw several Birds of a light Grey Colour like Pidgeons but smaller these are of the Mother Carys kind, Long.de. per Observ.on. 61º.29'.45"Wt. which is 22' to the West.wd. of Yesterday but the ship hath made 41' Consequently there was Error of 19' which is not to be supposed & to be in the Log in one Days sun. but be it which way it will its not great.
Firstp.t. Genteel breeze & Clear latter fresh gales with heavy squalls of Wind & rain which bro.t us under our Course & Main Topsails close reefs soon after noon saw the appearance of Land to the Eastw.d & being in the Lat.de of Cayped as its lay'd down in some Charts immagin'd it might be it bore down to be Certain & at 1/2 past 2 pm discovered our Mistake & haul'd the Wind again at 6 Sounded & had 72 fa.om. black sand & Mud - Variation 19.45 East.