James Cook - A Journal of the proceedings of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour on a voyage round the world, by Lieutenant James Cook, Commander, commencing the 25th of May 1768 - 23 Oct. 1770 - Page 29
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Remarkable Occurances onboard His Majesty's Bark Endeavour
First & Middlept. [middlepart]Modte. breezes & Clear. Latter fresh Gales & Cloudy at 6
PM loosed the 2d. Reef out of the Topsails & at 8 AM took them in again at Noon Tack'd & stood to the NW. having stood before to the Southward.
Very hard gales with some heavy showers of Rain the most part of these 24 Hours which brought us under our two Courses, broke one of our Main Topmast Puttock Plates washed overboard a small Boat belonging to the Boatswain. & drown'd between 3 & 4 Dozen of our Poultry which was worst of all
towards Noon it moderated so that we could bear our Maintopsail close Reefd at Midnight wore & stood to the Southward
Fresh Gales & Cloudy the most part of these 24 Hours
PM got up the spare Mainsail to dry it being Wet by the Water getting into the Sailroom occasioned by the Ship being very Leakey in her upper works at 5 AM loosed 2 Reefs out of each Topsail, & saw the Land which we judged to be between Cape Finister And Cape Ortugal. at 10 Tackd being about 4 Miles Off shore & stood to the NW At Noon Cape Ortugal bore S. by S. diste [distance] abt [about] 8 Lg's [leagues]
First part little wind & Hazey with rain remainder strong Gales with hard squalls which brought us under our close Reeft Topsails & obliged us to strike Top gallant yards at 8 AM wore ship & stood to the Southward Fore part fresh Gales & Clear remainder light Airs & Calm at 6 AM Cape Finister bore S by W½W dist.t. [distance]10 or 11 Leagues. loosed all the Reefs out of the Topsails & got Topgallant Yards aCross.
Light breezes & Calm all these 24 Hours at 2 PM had an Observation of the Sun & Moon which gave the Longitde. 8.º 42' W. from Greenwich at 6 Cape Finister bore S byW..W.6 Lg's Variation of the Compass PerAzm.th. [azimuth]18.42 W. at Noon Cape Finister S by E dist 4 Lg's Lat.de. observed 43º.4' therefore Cape Finister must lay in Lat.de. 42º.53' North
Mod.te. breezes & Clear wea.er. these 24 Hours.
AM found the Variat.on . [variation] by the Mean of 5 Azm.th. to be 21.º 40'W. aadibaa 3 Degrees more than what it was found Yesterday, which I .cannot account for as both Observations appear to me to be equally well made at 10.h 28' had an Observation of the sun & Moon which gave the Long.de. 9º.40'W. from Greenwich by this Observation Cape Finisterre & must lay in 8º.52'. & by that made Yesterday as 8.40 the Mean of the two is 8.46W. of Greenwich the Long.de. of the Cape its Lat.de. being 42.53 North -
Mod.te breezes & Clear wea.er. found the Variation to be 21.4W.
Fesh Gales & Cloudy wea.er. AM past by 2 Sail which were standing to the NE.t.
First part fresh G.e. [gales] remainder mod.te. breezes & fine Clear wea.er. set up the Topm.st. rigging & found the Var.on. to be 19º.50' West
A Heady fresh breeze & fine Clear wea.er. found the Var.on. of the compass by the Evening & Morning Amplit.de. [amplitud]& by 2Azm.th. to be 20º.59 West.
The same Wind & wea.er. Continue found the Variat.on. to be this Evening 18º.54' & in the Morning 17º.58'W. they both being the mean result of Several good Observations
Mod.te. breezes & fine Clear wea.er. at 6AM the Island of Porto Sanato bore NW by W dist. 9 or10 Lg's. Should the Wind to the Windward at Noon The Desarties extending from WSW to SW by S, the Body of Madiera[sic] a W/2 S & Porto San to NNW½W