James Cook - A Journal of the proceedings of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour on a voyage round the world, by Lieutenant James Cook, Commander, commencing the 25th of May 1768 - 23 Oct. 1770 - Page 37
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Remarkable Occurrences from Madeira Towards Rio de Janeiro
Firstpt. Calm the remainder Gentle breezes & fine Pleasant wea.r. at 3h.30'.39" Apparent time
PM the observed distance of the sun & moon nearest the Limb was 52º.42'.30" the Alt.de. of the sun's Lower limb 32.39. the Alt.de. moon Lower Limb 58.36 the Long.de. of the ship fore the aforegoing Observations 23º.33'.33" W. from Greenwich differing 13' from those made this Morning or Yesterday the ship laying all the time becalm'd. Variation of the Compass 8º.40' West.
Variable light Airs & Calm clear wea.r ½ Past 1
PM took two Distances of the sun & moon the first of w.ch gave the Long.de 23º. 45'.56". & the last 23º.44' W.t the diff.ce being not quite 2 Miles which shows how near to one another these obs.ns can be made
Sometimes little wind sometimes Squally with rain & Lightning
Fresh breezes & Cloudy wea.r the Obsrv'd Lat.de to the Northw.d of that given by the Log 9 Miles which I suppose must be owing to a Current
A Genteel gale & Clear weather, at a little before 5
PM had an Observ.n of the sun & moon which gave the Long.de 25º.46'W.t from Greenwich which is more Westerly than that by acco.t carried on from the last Obs.ns & the Observd Lat.de being again to the Northw.d of acco.t shows that there must be a Curr.t setting between the N.º & West.
A Mod.te breezes & for the mostp.t clear wea.r Long.de is Per the Mean of 2 Observ.ons of the sun & moon made at 4h 45' & at 4h 54'
PM 26.33W.t Var,on of the Compass 47W.t & the Observ'd Lat.de at Noon to the Northw.d of the Log 7 Miles
Mod.te breezes & fine Pleasant wea.r Variation 3.17. Wt..
A Mod.te Steady breeze & fine Clear wea.r the Ship by Observ.on at Noon is 8 Miles to the Northw.d of the Log.
Firstp.t Dº. wea.r remainder fresh Breezes & Cloudy with some flying Showers of rain Variat.on per Azm.th this Morning 3º.22' W.t at Noon by Observ.on found the Ship 11 Miles ahead of the Log
A Genteel breeze & Clear wea.r with a Moist Air, soon after sun rise found the Variaton of the Compass to be 2.24 W.t being the Mean result of several very good Azm.th this was just before we crossed the Line in the Long.de of 29.29 W.t from Greenwich, we also try'd the Diping Needle belonging to the Royal Society & found the Nº. Point to Dip 26º Degrees below the Horizon but this Instrument cannot be used at Sea to any great degree of Accuracy on account of the Motion of the Ship which hinders the Needle from resting, however as the Ship was pretty Steady & by means of a Swinging Table I had made for that Purpose we could be Certain of the Dip to two Degrees at most the Observ'd Lat.de & that by acco.t nearly Agree
Firstp.t light Airs & Cloudy wea.r the remainder a Mod.te breeze & Cloudy, after we had got an Observ.on & it was no longer Doubted that we were to the Southward of the Line the Ceremony on this occasion Practised by all Nations was not Omitted everyone that could not prove upon a Sea Chart that he had before Crossed the Line was Either to pay a Bottle of Rum or be Duck'd in the Sea & this which former case was the fate of by far the Greatest part onboard, & as several of the Men chose to be Duck'd & the Wea.r was favourable for that purpose this Ceremony was Performed on about 20 or 30 to the no small Diversion of the Rest.
Fresh Gale & Close Cloudy wea.r Variation 2.48 W.t