James Cook - A Journal of the proceedings of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour on a voyage round the world, by Lieutenant James Cook, Commander, commencing the 25th of May 1768 - 23 Oct. 1770 - Page 39
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Remarkable Occurrances &tc from Madeira Towards Rio De Janeiro
Fresh Breezes & fine Clear wea.er. at a little past 1
AM Long.de. in by these following Observ.ns. / Vis.a. / by the Moon & the* Arictis 32º.27'. by the Moon & Pollux 32º.0'.15". by Dº.91º.48'.32". the mean of the whole is 32.5.16W. from Greenwich which is 31' more Westerly than the Long.de. by acco.t. carried on since the last Observ.on the 2 first Observ.ns. were made & Computed by Mr. Green. & the last by myself. &* Arictis was on one side of the Moon & Pollux on the other this day at Noon being nearly in the Lat.de. of the Island Ferdinand Noronha to the Westw.d. of it by some Charts & to the Eastw.d. by others was in Expectation of seeing it or some of those Shoals that are laid down in most Charts between it & the Main but we saw neither one nor a Nother. We certainly passed to the Eastw.d.of the Island, & as to the Shoals I dont think they Exhist[sic] grounding this my Opinion. on the Journal of some East India Ship I have seen who were Detained by Contrary winds between this Island & the Main. & being 5 or 6 Ships in Cº. doubtless much have seen some of them did they lay as Mrked in the Charts.
Fresh Breezes & pleasant wea.r. Variation of the Compass 2.25 West
A steady breeze & for the most part close cloudy wea.r.Variat.on by several Azm.th. 1.31.W. at Noon the Observed Latitude 7 Miles to Southward of Account
A Fresh breeze & Clear wea.r. Variation 8º.15'W.t Observed Latitude again to the Southward of the Log
Mod.te. breezes & for the most part Cloudy Var.on. by the mean of Several Azm.th. 0.58º W.t in the Even.g. & the Morning found it to be 0.1/18 West
A Steady breeze & fine pleasant wea.r. this afternoon by the mean of Several Azm.th. & then Amplitude found the Variation to be 0.34'E.t. from which it appears that about the aforegoing Noon we have Crossed the Line of no Variation in the Latitude of 10.38 Sº. & according to the following Observ.on. 32.0 W.t Long.de. from Greenwich At 5.h.5'0", Apparent time
AM the Long.de.of the Ship per Observation of the Moon & *the Aldeboran was found to be 32º0'45". at 8h. 17.'0" per sun & Moon 32.25.0 & at 9.h.0. 16º. 32º19'.0 Mean of the 3 in 32º.14'.55" & again at 7h.12'.52" per sun & Moon 32.10.4 & at 7h.19'.42" per Sun & Moon 32º.15'.20" the mean of these 2 is 32º.12'.42" & the mean of the whole is 32.13.43 W.t. from
Greenwich which is less by a whole Degree than that by acco.t which is a Considerable Error to be made in 5 Days in these low Latitudes one would think from this that we must have had a Curr.t setting to the Eastward which is not likely that it should set against the settled Trade Wind. the 3 first of these Observ.ns were made by Mr. Green & the 2 last by my self.
A Fresh Trade wind & fair wea.r.Var.on. per Azm.th. this Evening 0º47'E.t. & at a little past 9
AM Long.de.in per sun & moon 33º.0'.W.t. of Greenw.h.
A Steady Gale & fair wea.r.PM Variat.on Per Azm.th. 1º.29'W.t .Dº1.28W.t & by the Ampl.de. 1.12W.t. Mean 1.23W.t by which it appears that we have again crossed the Line of no Variat.on. at ½ past 9
AM the Long.de. of the Ship per Obs.on. of the Sun & Moon 33º26'.30"
Fine pleasant wea.r. Variat.on. per Azm.th. this morning 3º.21'E.t which makes me Doubtful of the Variat.n. found Yesterday tho' at the time I had not the least room to doubt of the Accuracy of the Observ.ns.Long.d per Observ.on. 34º 43'.30"W.t
First & Latterp.t. Squally with heavy Showers of rain. Middle mod.te. & fair, I now determin'd to put into Rio De Janeiro in Preferance to any other port in Brazil or Falkland Islands. for at this place I knew we could recruit out Stock of Provis.ns. several Articles of which I found we should in time be in want of & at the same time Procure Live Stocks & refreshment for the People & from the reception former Ships had meet with here I doubted not but we should be well received-