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[Page 63]

and by field guns. But the latter must have high-explosive shell and not shrapnel, which is useless against barbed-wire and deep trenches. When I left Gallipoli, there was not a single round of high-explosive shell for the field guns. Our two big sixty-pounder howitzers were, however, doing good work.

The Enemy's Guns.
The Turks and Germans have used their machine guns with great skill, such as we are accustomed to in France. Very often our attacks have been held up at critical moments by these concealed weapons. They are also extremely skilful in the use of their artillery. At first, they seemed to be either short of guns or of ammunition and fired very sparingly, but of late they have been much more free, frequently shelling the beaches and trenches and ships approaching too close to the shore.
During the big fight of May 6th. to 8th., when we made our last effort to carry Krithia and Achi Baba by assault, they reserved their artillery fire for critical moments when our attacks were being pressed home and on at least three occasions drove the French in hopeless flight out of positions they had successfully taken by assault. They are continually shifting the position of their field guns so as not to draw the fire of the ships' guns on their artillery positions and especially the fire of the big howitzers. Their favourite time is to open up just before sunset when it is rather late for an aeroplane reconnaissance.

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