Item 02: Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett articles on the Gallipoli campaign, 1915 - Page 104
and have been chiefly sustained in his early offensives after we first landed his subsecquent efforts to drive the Australians into the sea and his abortive counter attacks which have followed every successful attack made by ourselves or by our F ench Allies. In addition his losses must have been very heavy from shell fire for during the last four months he has been subjected to a continous bombardment from Ships guns howitzers and Field batteries.
His artillery fire has caused us many casualties more especially on the beaches and in the exposed rest camps and when it is borne in mind that the number of shells fired during this period under review must be almost in the proportion of 10-1 in favour of the Allies some approximate estimate can be formed of the losses the Turks have sustained from this cause alone. It is only fair to assume that his first line troops must now have practically ceased to exist. His first reserves the Redifs are known to have been decimated and his trenches must now be held very largely by half trained levies dragged into the firing line from the remote districts of his scattered and heterogenus empire. Of the actual numbers the Turks have left in the field it is extremely difficult to form and correct estimate. His system of counter attacks on a grand scale may be said to have finally ceased after the costly failure to retake the positions won by us on June 28th and 29th. This may mean he is getting short of men or else that he realises the impossibility of attacking entrenched British infantry with any hope of success without an adequate artillery support which the diminishing state of his ammunition no longer allows of. He may have more men than he can actual employ on the peninsula but it