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[Page 150]


The varying events leading up to the surrender, including the military operations in the difficult jungle country between Kabakaul and the Wireless Station at Bitapaka, and between Herbertshohe and Toma, the temporary seat of Government, have already been set forth in detail by me in various despatches. I will now, therefore, simply confine myself to the terms of surrender, which I propose to deal with seriatim.

(1) " The name Deutsch New Guinea (German New Guinea) includes the whole of the German Possessions in the Pacific Ocean lately administered from Rabaul by the said Acting Governor, on behalf of the Imperial German Government, and the said Possessions are hereafter referred to as the 'Colony".

I had considerable difficulty in enforcing this condition, as the Ex-Governor was of the opinion that only those portions of the territory which had been successfully occupied by the forces under my command, vis. - the Island of New Britain, should be handed over; however, I insisted, and he eventually agreed.  The surrender, therefore, comprised the Bismark Archipelago, including Bougainville, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, The Pelew, Ladrone, Caroline, and Marshall Islands, including Nauru.

(2) "All Military resistance to the said Military occupation of the Colony shall cease forthwith."
No. 1 Condition having been agreed to, this one followed as a natural consequence.

(3) "The armed German and Native Forces now in the field are to be surrendered at Herbertshohe on the 21st day of September, 1914, at Ten (10) o'clock in the Forenoon. Military honours will be granted."

At the conference the Ex-Governor was attended, as Military adviser, by Major Von Klewitz, an Officer of the Imperial German Army, who organised the defences in New Guinea and occupied the position of Commandant.   The latter was particularly persistent in advising the Ex-Governor that the surrender should only be agreed to on 'Military Honours' being conceded.  To this I at first refused to subscribe; the matter was discussed for a long time, and eventually I decided to concede the point, as I would really be giving nothing away that was of vital importance.  It was merely a courtesy to an opponent who had fought well, and moreover is provided for in the Manual of Military Law, Section 315 of Chapter XIV, The Laws and Usages of War as follows:-

"The expression with Honours of War, which is sometimes used in capitulations, is usually construed to include, the right to march with Colours displayed, drums beating, bayonets fixed and swords drawn."

I am convinced that had this point not been conceded, the surrender would not have taken place, but hostilities would have resumed, with possibly the loss of many more good Australian lives, for it must be borne in mind that bush fighting is the most difficult of all.  For us there was only the one means of progress, along the road, the jungle on either side being absolutely impenetrable.  The road was mined and trenched, and under such

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