inside, and a cold wind outside, it was hard work and far from being a pleasant task. My back felt at times as though it was about to break. After getting out of the tunnel we had to wheel the earth about 40 yds. down a narrow sap where we were exposed to rifle fire. The passage was very steep and ended at a cliff, and it was necessary when wheeling to have a man hanging round one's thighs to act as a brake. Unless something unusual occurred, or an attack was expected, both Turks & our own batteries fired most of their shells before 1 a.m. and after 4 p.m. At 7 p.m. each evening every man in the trenches stood to arms, and also from 4.30 a.m. till 5 a.m.