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important personages as the "quarter" or S.M.; in fact one half did not know how the other half lived.

The mining at Lone Pine was very arduous and existing, the front trenches being only separated by seven or eight yards in some places with the result that a couple of days hard digging would take either side underneath the enemy's line. Underground clashes were frequent and both sides were constantly firing mines to destroy the tunnels and discourage the tunnellers of the other side. Such names as tunnel L.P. 3 which was landed over by the outgoing field company complete with a Turk in good order furnished with a rifle and loop-hole plate. This tunnel we were invited to share with the above mentioned Turk until we could remove him or vice versa, however we were fortunate enough to get in the first blow.

These tunnels by the way measured about one foot six wide and two foot six high only slightly bigger than the side of a kerosene case so there was little room to spare for some of us.

Other tunnels which will recall incidents are L.P.S. where the Turks blew us killing Sapper Jones, the one occasion they got us L.P. 14 in the famous Sap B where underground fighting grew very fierce and from which we captured, from below, Barber's Gallery.

In all this underground work one name stands out, that of Sgt. Gilchrist who was in every dangerous operation and always in the lead, and who two years later at Bullecourt performed one of the most heroic feats ever accomplished by the A.I.F. when for a long time her single-handed held up repeated attacks by large parties of the Germans and when a party of men were sent to help he sent them to another part of the line which was being threatened only remarking "its all right I can keep them off here" and he did for some hours until killed, by which time the chief danger was past.

The left half of the company at Johnston's Jolly were also engaged in tunnelling but did not meet with the same active opposition as the right half chiefly owing to the fact that the trenches were much further apart. However at tunnel C3 Turks were once heard working very close and a small mine fired successfully unfortunately Lieut. Bowra sent into inspect before the poisonous fumes of the explosive had dispersed and collapsed, in the efforts to rescue him Lieut. Thom and three more lost their lives.

For the evacuation there were great engineer preparations the mines being charged with explosives ready to fire and thus delay the enemy if he attached. Eight Horsemen of the 4th. L.H. were chiefly engaged on the working parties and not being accustomed to underground work besides being somewhat nervous of handling explosives in large quantities, the sappers were much amused by the way a tall

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