James Cook - A Journal of the proceedings of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour on a voyage round the world, by Lieutenant James Cook, Commander, commencing the 25th of May 1768 - 23 Oct. 1770 - Page 41

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page 41

Remarkable Occurrences &tc  From Madeira Towards Rio De Janeiro

Mod.te breezes & Clear wea.r. PM found the Variat.on. to be 4º.49'E.t. at 6 Sounded & had 32 fa.om. Water the Bottom Coral rocks fine Sand & Shells which Sound.gs. we carried upon a SW & W Course 9 or 10 Lg's then had no ground with 100 fathom we were by our acco.t & Run afterwards 54 Lg's East from the Coast of Brazil & to the Southw.d. of the Shoals called Abrollos as they are laid down in Most Charts-

Fresh breezes & Cloudy wea.r. PM Variat.on. by the Mean of 12 Azm.th. 5º.26' E.t. & by an Amplit.de. in the Morning 7º.52'-at 6AM Saw the Land of Brazil bearing NW ½ N' dist 8 or 10 Lg's at 8 Sounded had 37 Fa.om. Coarse Sand broken Shells & Coral Rocks at 9 bro.t too & Spoke with a Fishing Boat who informed us that the Land in sight lay to the  Southward of Santa Espiritu it appears high & Mountainous the drawing Nº/31 Exhibits a View of this Land as it appeared from the Ship (A) being near the Santo Espiritu & a remarkable hill(B') bore NW½N Dist.e. 7 or 8 Lg's made Sail in Shore the wind being Southerly had from the above Depth to 14 fa.om. the same sort of Bottom. found the Ship at Noon by Observ.on. 10 Miles to the Southward of acco.t which I suppose to be- occasioned by a Current setting between the Sº. & West.

First & Latterp.t hazey with a Mod.te. breeze Middle fresh Gales with Thunder Lightning & Rain at 3 PM Tack'd in 16 fa.om. distance from the Shore 5 Leag.s. The land Extending from the NWbW to NE.t. at 5 took the 2.d. Reef in the Tops.ls. & got down Topgallant Yards stood to the SE until Midnight then Tacke'd Sound.gs. from 16 to 55 fa.om. at 8 AM loosed the Reefs out of the Topsails & got Topgallant Yards across unstowed the Anchors & bent the Cables. at Noon Lat.de. Observed 21º29'Sº. the Land Extending from SWb S to NNW.t . dist.ce. 4 Lg's Soundings from 55 to 10 fa.om.

Mod.te. breezes & Hazey upon the Land. stood in for the Shore SW½W.t Depth of Water from 10 to 9 fa.om. & from 9 to 16 fa.om. being then 4 Leagues from the Land from 16 fa.om. it Shoalded gradually to 5 fa.om. then we tacked being about 1½ Leagues from that Shore the Extremes of the Land to the Southw.d. which we took for Cape S.t Thomas bore S¾W.t.dist.ce. 4 Lg's the Land from Cape S.tThomas/to the Northw.d. lies NbEs1/3E.t., along the shore  is low land covered with Wood & Sandy Beaches, but inland are very high Mountains the greatest part of them being hid in the Clouds.Stood off until '5 in the Morning E.t. & EbS

Depth of Water & 30 fa.om at Noon Latitude Observed 21.30. Depth of Water 14 fa.om Grey sand with black specks. Extreams of the Land from SWbW to NNW.t dist.ce. 12 or 14 Lg's -

First & Latterp.t mod.te. breezes & fair, but Cloudy & Hazey over the Land. Middle a fresh breeze & Cloudy at 8 Tack'd & stood to the NE.n. Extreams of the Land to the Southward which we took for Cape S.h. Thomas SW....dist 5 or 6 Lg's Depth of Water 13 fa.om. Grey sand at 11AM Tack'd in 15 fa.om. & stood to the SSE.t & at 3 AM Stood over a Shoal or Bank of  6 fa.om afterwards the Depth increased to 30 fa.om. at Noon in 36 fa.om.Lat.d.Observ.d. 22.37Sº. which is 10 Miles to the Southw.d. of the Log no Land in sight.

Gentle breezes & fine clear wea.r. at 2PM Sounded but had no ground with 38 fa.om. & soon after sounded & had none at 50 fa.om. from. which it appears that we are to the Southward of the Bank we have been upon this 2 Days past, it Extends off from the Land between the Lat.de. 21 & 22 not less then 15 or 20 Lg's. How much farther I know note standing in from Sea the Depth of Water very soon Diminisheth from 30 to 20 & to 17 fa.om. afterwards gradually from 9.-8 & even to 6 fa.om. but betw.n. this Shoal Water & the Main which is 6 or 7 or & Lg's you will have 10.12 & even 16 fa.om. till you come within 2 or 3 Lg's of the Shore, the Bottom is of Various kinds sometimes Coral Rocks, Coral Banks & broken Shells. Coarse sand and broken Shells, Small Stones. & at other times fine Sand.varying almost every Cast of the Lead. at 5PM saw the Land bearing NWbW½W dist.ce. 10 or 12 Lg's which proved to be the Island of Cape Fais, it appeared in two Hillocks & from the Deck looked like two Islands took several Azm.th. of the Sun which gave the Variation 6º40E.t. at 8AM the Isle of Cape Fais bore WbN 4Lg's I think land is Situated in the lat.de. of 23º.2'Sº. & according to our Reckoning in the Long.de. of 38º.45' W.t from Greenwich but from many Circumstances I have good reason

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